Psychological factors

1. Discuss the psychological factors associated with pain and, at least, one psychosocial intervention used to treat pain.

Psychological factors related to pain disorder get viewed to play a significant role in the onset, seriousness, exacerbation or maintenance of the pain. Psychological assessment assists in understanding patient’s experience of pain together with any associated pain behavior such as grimacing, postural changes and expressions of face. It also assists in identifying coping strategies that get used by the patient and whether they result in a positive outcome such as distraction and staying busy or adverse outcome such as catastrophising and limitation of activity. The diagnosis of pain disorder with psychological factors gets made when the patient’s reaction is out of proportion to the physical condition and when deficits in psychosocial functioning occur.

The psychological factors associated with pain include (Turk & Gatchel, 2013).

Cognitions: Fear about paralysis and despondency can result in elevated levels of pain.
Emotion: High levels of pain get associated with fear, anxiety, general stress and depression. High levels of these aspects compel individuals to seek medical treatment for the pain.
Behavior: Pain gets associated with low self-esteem as well as marked avoidance
Attention: Giving a particular pain lot of attention can result in elevated intensity.
Interpretation: Pain gets assessed differently by different patients, for instance, an individual who suffered a heart attack may ignore a muscle twitch in the chest.
Expectations: The type of expectation an individual has towards a particular pain may affect the feedback received from pain receptors.
Context: The time when pain is occurring determines the pain felt by a person, for instance, a patient who has got injected with anesthesia in a theater surgery procedure may not feel the pain until later.
Coping approaches: Different approaches get used to minimize pain. They include biofeedback, visualization, positive affirmations, and distraction.
Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy for Pain Management
This psychosocial treatment process involves several phases. The first step in treatment is pain education, where a patient gets explained about pain, how the role of own response towards pain influences pain experience and coping strategies in pain control. The second step involves in one or more coping skills for pain management. The therapist provides an educational rationale, basic instruction as well as guided practice and feedback got each strategy taught. The third step involves home practice with the skills learned from the therapist. The last step of treatment involves assisting patients to establish a program for maintaining their skills practice after the completion of training and for overcoming setbacks and relapses in the coping strategies.

2. Pick two of the five theoretical models of coping with chronic illness and describe in detail. What adherence interventions would be effective in the two models you choose?

Self-Regulation Model
It is a theoretical model of goal-directed behavior that gets applied to understanding people’s ability to cope with the chronic disorder. In this model, the human behavior gets influenced by objectives through which individuals seek to develop particular desired conditions in their lives. Patients use the self-realization process to strive to achieve certain goals. This model gets based on the assumption that patients experience stress when they get hindrances towards achieving their goals and dealing with stress gets conceptualized as efforts at self-regulation based on that adversity. Suffering from a chronic illness is stressful to the extent that it gets viewed to prevent a patient’s goals and their ability to deal successfully with the disease get determined by their capacity to reassess the goals (Suls, Davidson & Kaplan, 2010).

Self-Determination Model
It is a theoretical model based on a broader theory of human motivation and behavior referred to as self-determination theory. The theory assumes that humans have three natural psychological needs namely, autonomy, competence, and relatedness to others and when these needs get met; persons usually experience improved self-motivation, development, and well-being. The theory recognizes that behavioral and affective factors of coping with chronic diseases such as diabetes and hypertension get facilitated by self-management. According to this model, people’s motivations for autonomy and competence are vital in successfully coping with chronic illnesses. Autonomy motivation occurs when individuals experience volition and choice in their illness-related behaviors, whereas competence occurs when patient’s feel that they can control important disease-related outcomes.

Planned Parenthood

Planned Parenthood is a non-profit organization that seeks to provide comprehensive reproductive and complementary health care services. The organization seeks to offer its services in a way that protects and maintains privacy and the rights of every person. It also advocates for the enactment of public policies that assure the members of access to services. Other roles include the provision of educational programs that promote individual understanding of and the society impacts of human sexuality. The organization promotes research and advancement in technology of the reproductive health care (Hamady, 2012).

The importance of the services offered and their benefits to the community

The program is beneficial to its ability to provide important reproductive health services both to the young and adult people. The provision of services in reproductive and maternal services ensures that people make informed decisions on the issues of family planning, and sexuality. The world is facing challenges of sustainability due to increased population growth. It is a major cause of poverty since families cannot be sustained by the level of income in the family. Healthy people 2020 vision is to ensure that people adopt and live healthy lives throughout their lives (Healthy People 2020, 2015). The central aspect of the vision is the sexual and reproductive health and rights since it forms the basis of many of the problems that affect human populations. Health is a combination of several factors and requires that people make informed decisions in all spheres of their lives.

The program assists the needy people in maintaining their reproductive health and protecting their basic rights (Hamady, 2012). Poverty affects the health of different individuals since they cannot access the basic health care services. The program promotes public awareness on the issues affecting them, educates the public, and increases public participation. The importance of the service is to ensure that the public understands their rights and can live healthy lives by having access to the vital services. The fact that the program promotes education on reproductive health helps Americans live healthy lives. It also ensures that there are low levels of infection of the sexually transmitted diseases and early pregnancy. Thus, the people benefiting from the program can lead productive and beneficial lives both to themselves and the society. The emphasis on an understanding of the importance for people to be tested, receive appropriate medication, and be screened boosts the health of individuals and the community too.

The organization uses advocacy to push for the change or enactment of policies on the health issues (Hamady, 2012). The benefit to the community is improved access to quality health care services since the providers have the mandate to do it. The policies and programs promoted by the organization ensure that individuals get timely and professional care in the communities, medical facilities, and other care providing centers. The major beneficiaries of the programs rolled out by the organization are the young people who understand on how to manage their reproductive health from an early stage. Thus, they live healthy lives due to the assurance of the programs.

The involvement of the organization with family planning issues is a major boost to ensuring sustainability levels. In most instances, the countries without proper family planning guidelines have a high population under poverty. The lack of family planning services also makes them experience high levels of abortion due to limited alternatives. As such, Planned Parenthood helps to address the challenges by providing modern contraceptive methods of family planning. The collaboration of the organization and other health care providers developed a national model for family planning that is beneficial in improving reproductive health. Planned Parenthood Federation of America Organization is a major boost to the health of the many people who subscribed to its services (Healthy People 2020, 2015).

Another benefit to the community is providing access to vital information about sexuality and reproductive health (Planned Parenthood, 2015). Many people have limited access to such information that hinders their ability to live healthy lives. The major factors leading to the limited access to such information is poverty, political instability, and conflicts. The organization addresses the issue by providing uninterrupted access to education and the vital services. The educational services provided regard the issues of reproductive, sexual, HIV, STI, child and maternal health, as well as family planning. An informed society can make important health choices that shape their lives.

Sponsors of the program
The Planned Parenthood Federation of America has different sources of funding. The organization receives support from millions of donors, activists, and supporters working to promote the programs. Planned Parenthood has been under federal government financial support since 1970 due to its work in family planning services and family planning information. The organization receives more than a third of its funds from government grants and contracts (Torre, 2015). There have been pro-life groups that lobby for a halt in government funding that made the federal and state legislators have legislation to reduce the funding. However, the organization has donors who include the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation, Buffet Foundation, Ford Foundation, and the Turner Foundation among others.

AgCredit Case Study

Discussion Questions
1. Propose an organizational structure for the IT department that you feel would support the transformation of AgCredit into a process centric organization.

Turning AgCredit into a process-centric organization is the most important thing at the moment. However, the process should get handled with care. The organization should make the staff recognize business processes especially the department of IT. The organization should also have committee mandated with overseeing implementation of projects. Besides overseeing project implementation, the committee should ensure that they remain within the goals and objectives of the organization. The Chief Information Officer (CIO) should also have a part to play in the boardroom meetings and decisions in the organization (Ali, Warne, Bopping, Hart, & Pascoe, 2004).

2. Outline a project selection process for AgCredit to ensure alignment with the enterprise business vision.

The current situation at the AgCredit does not allow informed selection of projects. Therefore, the organization requires a committee with absolute powers of decision making. Project selection process should ensure that the project has elements of the overall vision of the organization. Besides meeting the overall vision of the organization, the process should also that it incorporates needs and requirements of each department while remaining within the dimensions of SOA (Mittal, Risco-Martin, & Zeigler, 2009).

3. How should Manley “make the case” for SOA to ensure that the executive team at AgCredit buys in?

It is not easy for Manley to convince the executive to buy the idea of SOA. One of the best of the way to convince the executive is showing how AgCredit stands to gain from SOA. Some of the gains that Manley should present are: SOA will consolidate customer details into one repository hence saving the organization time and financial resources required to retrieve the information from fragmented repositories. Additionally, a common process in the organization will enable collaboration between the departments thereby enabling quicker attainment of the organization’s goals and objectives. The technology will revolutionize the business processes at the organization thereby giving the organization competitive advantage (Koetter & Kochanowski, 2015).

4. What new internal IT capabilities will have to be developed in order to create an IT department to support AgCredit’s future business architecture?

The capabilities that AgCredit requires are the management and information management tools. It also requires mechanisms through which information will get delivered within and outside the organization. Furthermore, there is a need to improve the organizational relationships with customers and also elaborate and evaluate roles each employee should play within the organization. However, all the capabilities and tools must align themselves with the requirements and standards of SOA. They must also remain within the authoritative regulations during and after implementation (Marinos, Nikolaos, & Vincenzo, 2015).

5. What aspects of IT governance do you think would be important in supporting this transformation?

The current situation in the organization is in the mess to an extent that each department has different objectives from the overall organizational objectives. The objectives should be similar to one another before implementation of the IT governance. The transformation also needs a committee that will help steer it in the desired direction. The Steering Committee should also involve views of the CIO, who handles the department of IT. Besides the CIO involvement in the steering committee, stakeholders should also play one of the vital roles in IT transformation (Peterson, 2004).