AgCredit Case Study

Discussion Questions
1. Propose an organizational structure for the IT department that you feel would support the transformation of AgCredit into a process centric organization.

Turning AgCredit into a process-centric organization is the most important thing at the moment. However, the process should get handled with care. The organization should make the staff recognize business processes especially the department of IT. The organization should also have committee mandated with overseeing implementation of projects. Besides overseeing project implementation, the committee should ensure that they remain within the goals and objectives of the organization. The Chief Information Officer (CIO) should also have a part to play in the boardroom meetings and decisions in the organization (Ali, Warne, Bopping, Hart, & Pascoe, 2004).

2. Outline a project selection process for AgCredit to ensure alignment with the enterprise business vision.

The current situation at the AgCredit does not allow informed selection of projects. Therefore, the organization requires a committee with absolute powers of decision making. Project selection process should ensure that the project has elements of the overall vision of the organization. Besides meeting the overall vision of the organization, the process should also that it incorporates needs and requirements of each department while remaining within the dimensions of SOA (Mittal, Risco-Martin, & Zeigler, 2009).

3. How should Manley “make the case” for SOA to ensure that the executive team at AgCredit buys in?

It is not easy for Manley to convince the executive to buy the idea of SOA. One of the best of the way to convince the executive is showing how AgCredit stands to gain from SOA. Some of the gains that Manley should present are: SOA will consolidate customer details into one repository hence saving the organization time and financial resources required to retrieve the information from fragmented repositories. Additionally, a common process in the organization will enable collaboration between the departments thereby enabling quicker attainment of the organization’s goals and objectives. The technology will revolutionize the business processes at the organization thereby giving the organization competitive advantage (Koetter & Kochanowski, 2015).

4. What new internal IT capabilities will have to be developed in order to create an IT department to support AgCredit’s future business architecture?

The capabilities that AgCredit requires are the management and information management tools. It also requires mechanisms through which information will get delivered within and outside the organization. Furthermore, there is a need to improve the organizational relationships with customers and also elaborate and evaluate roles each employee should play within the organization. However, all the capabilities and tools must align themselves with the requirements and standards of SOA. They must also remain within the authoritative regulations during and after implementation (Marinos, Nikolaos, & Vincenzo, 2015).

5. What aspects of IT governance do you think would be important in supporting this transformation?

The current situation in the organization is in the mess to an extent that each department has different objectives from the overall organizational objectives. The objectives should be similar to one another before implementation of the IT governance. The transformation also needs a committee that will help steer it in the desired direction. The Steering Committee should also involve views of the CIO, who handles the department of IT. Besides the CIO involvement in the steering committee, stakeholders should also play one of the vital roles in IT transformation (Peterson, 2004).

Psychological factors

1. Discuss the psychological factors associated with pain and, at least, one psychosocial intervention used to treat pain.

Psychological factors related to pain disorder get viewed to play a significant role in the onset, seriousness, exacerbation or maintenance of the pain. Psychological assessment assists in understanding patient’s experience of pain together with any associated pain behavior such as grimacing, postural changes and expressions of face. It also assists in identifying coping strategies that get used by the patient and whether they result in a positive outcome such as distraction and staying busy or adverse outcome such as catastrophising and limitation of activity. The diagnosis of pain disorder with psychological factors gets made when the patient’s reaction is out of proportion to the physical condition and when deficits in psychosocial functioning occur.

The psychological factors associated with pain include (Turk & Gatchel, 2013).

Cognitions: Fear about paralysis and despondency can result in elevated levels of pain.
Emotion: High levels of pain get associated with fear, anxiety, general stress and depression. High levels of these aspects compel individuals to seek medical treatment for the pain.
Behavior: Pain gets associated with low self-esteem as well as marked avoidance
Attention: Giving a particular pain lot of attention can result in elevated intensity.
Interpretation: Pain gets assessed differently by different patients, for instance, an individual who suffered a heart attack may ignore a muscle twitch in the chest.
Expectations: The type of expectation an individual has towards a particular pain may affect the feedback received from pain receptors.
Context: The time when pain is occurring determines the pain felt by a person, for instance, a patient who has got injected with anesthesia in a theater surgery procedure may not feel the pain until later.
Coping approaches: Different approaches get used to minimize pain. They include biofeedback, visualization, positive affirmations, and distraction.
Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy for Pain Management
This psychosocial treatment process involves several phases. The first step in treatment is pain education, where a patient gets explained about pain, how the role of own response towards pain influences pain experience and coping strategies in pain control. The second step involves in one or more coping skills for pain management. The therapist provides an educational rationale, basic instruction as well as guided practice and feedback got each strategy taught. The third step involves home practice with the skills learned from the therapist. The last step of treatment involves assisting patients to establish a program for maintaining their skills practice after the completion of training and for overcoming setbacks and relapses in the coping strategies.

2. Pick two of the five theoretical models of coping with chronic illness and describe in detail. What adherence interventions would be effective in the two models you choose?

Self-Regulation Model
It is a theoretical model of goal-directed behavior that gets applied to understanding people’s ability to cope with the chronic disorder. In this model, the human behavior gets influenced by objectives through which individuals seek to develop particular desired conditions in their lives. Patients use the self-realization process to strive to achieve certain goals. This model gets based on the assumption that patients experience stress when they get hindrances towards achieving their goals and dealing with stress gets conceptualized as efforts at self-regulation based on that adversity. Suffering from a chronic illness is stressful to the extent that it gets viewed to prevent a patient’s goals and their ability to deal successfully with the disease get determined by their capacity to reassess the goals (Suls, Davidson & Kaplan, 2010).

Self-Determination Model
It is a theoretical model based on a broader theory of human motivation and behavior referred to as self-determination theory. The theory assumes that humans have three natural psychological needs namely, autonomy, competence, and relatedness to others and when these needs get met; persons usually experience improved self-motivation, development, and well-being. The theory recognizes that behavioral and affective factors of coping with chronic diseases such as diabetes and hypertension get facilitated by self-management. According to this model, people’s motivations for autonomy and competence are vital in successfully coping with chronic illnesses. Autonomy motivation occurs when individuals experience volition and choice in their illness-related behaviors, whereas competence occurs when patient’s feel that they can control important disease-related outcomes.

Sports Event Project

The 20th December is the foundation day at the University of Miami. The day also serves as the university’s sports day. All the students and the staff alike look eagerly to the day. The day has always been exciting with many events that can only be done on this day. The student and the staff enjoy the day and give them a lot of pleasures. Everybody is full of joy on this day and each of them especially the students live on this day. The programme was made for the day as it would have been the case whenever the day was near. We also got copies of the programme printed for us. The director of the university invited the parents on that very day to make the even interesting. The PTI would be in charge of the whole event, and it would start at 10 am.

I arrived at the university grounds shortly after 10 am since I was not taking part in any of the events. There was ushering in every place in the compound. I was shown the area I would park my vehicle. However, due to congestion since a lot of people had arrived at that time, they did not concentrate where I would park. There was enough space at first, but I guess the parking space would not be enough because of the number of visitors the university was expecting. I parked the vehicle in the nearest slot and moved out for the activities of the day. I had for the rest room so that I would be comfortable when the main events started. However, I was shocked that there was no frisking of any kind to ensure there was security of the people who were attending the event. I thought it would have been dangerous if someone would have decided to cause commotion.

I had the event programme already with me. Therefore, I did not need to go queue to buy one. There were congesting already by the time I was settling down. The first event on the programme was the 100 meters race that would be followed closely by the 400 meters and 800 meters in that order. There was also the 5 kilometers race that was a great fun. Job, the university’s funny character was taking part in the race. It was fun to see him run. All the people laughed and clapped when all the other participants in the raced covered three rounds, and he had covered half the round. However, he was still running. I thought he would have been ejected, but he was still running and not concentrating on the event. He was out to make the people laugh, but it was acceptable since the day was about happiness. Everything was going on well and according to the plans.

The rest of the events came and go. The bicycle race was another interesting race where many student and staff took part in numbers. After the race came the jumps and it was successful as it would have been expected at the beginning. The high jump, the triple jump, and long jump items were very interesting but they would have been better if there was good time management. Prize distribution followed the racing where after the prize giving we headed home happily.