Ibadi (Ibadism)

Religious organizations have been in existence for many years, and all of them have a unique origin and their spread. In most instances, religious organizations have a set of principles, rules, and beliefs that guide their way of life and culture. It also defines them and describes why they do and believe what they purport to be right. The Ibadi movement also bears the name of Ibadism or Ibadiyya, which is a school of Islam having much dominance in Oman and Zanzibar (Hoffman, 2004). Other groups of the organization occupy some parts of Algeria, Tunisia, Libya, and East Africa. The history of the movement explains that it came into existence 20 years after the death of the Muslim prophet Muhammad. A movement is a reformed group from the Kharijite movement. However, the movement denies any association with the former sect. The sect of Islam is neither Sunni nor Shi’I but believes that there ought to be a Muslim Society in which true Muslims are only part of their sect. The main difference between the group and the rest of Muslim is the root of political theory.

Aims of the group
Ibadism aimed at distancing itself from Kharijism movement by establishing ideologies that were different from the norms of the Kharijites. Ibadism movement started with being different in their viewpoint on the subjective interpretations of the words of the Prophet. Other aspects have diverse views on some things in the Quran, how the prophet followed the commands of Allah and the stories of the examples from his daily life. The aim of the Ibadis was to return the purity of the Islamic faith and the entire society along the lines laid by Prophet Muhammad (Hoffman, 2014).

The group aimed to live in peace with the other Muslims and, therefore, opposed to the armed rebellion and political assassination developed by the Kharijis in the form of Holy War. Thus, Ibadis have an aim of maintaining legalism and strict moral codes as the ambassadors called Puritans of the desert. The Ibadis movement ought to follow the main Khariji doctrines, but had modifications that defined the conditions for them to live in harmony with other Muslims. Thus, they had the objective of being reconciliatory towards other Muslims than the Kharijis.

The group also aimed to continue teaching the people the Traditions and Futya (legal opinion) regardless of whether they subscribe to the Ibadis’ ideologies.

Why they hold the aspirations
Ibadism is different from both Shia and Sunni Islam. The sect believes that souls condemned to Hell will stay in hell all the days if their lives. They reject that Muslims will see Allah on the Day of Judgment. The group holds the aspirations due to several issues.

Ibadism movement has a different perspective on some issues in Islam in comparison to other Muslims. The Umayyads people wanted the pre-Islamic power to return to their region. Thus, the Muslim community separated into different sects in opposition to the policies given by the third Caliph ‘Uthman b. ‘Affan. Ibadis was among the parties who had different opinions on the policies and thus branched to shape their beliefs and reactions.

The movement disregarded the logic and reasoning against the traditional path of the Prophet. Ibadis opposed the third Caliph policies since they were against the Sunnah and hence non-Islamic. The movement maintains distinct loyalty to the Quran and the Sunnah as well as to other Muslims, who respect the Sunnah and the Quran (Francesca, 2015). The Ibadi Caliphate is under a secular ruler and can also cease to exist. The Caliph can subjugate the other Ibadi rulers in an own free will and can also declare Jihads. According to the Ibadis, their rulers can have multiple wives according to the expectation of many people. Anyone can hold the temple holdings without penalty, and the Ibadi dynasties tend towards cultural decline.

The group maintains the objectives since it is different from the famous Sunni Islam and Shia that have divergent views on various issues. The Ibadis share a history of the powerful Khariji Movement that was the earliest Muslim sect. They did not agree with the accepted order in the first two centuries of Islam.

How they achieve their objectives
The group achieves its objectives by selecting Imams under whose guidance they can fulfill the crucial Qur’anic injunction of “promoting good and preventing evil.” Thus, they establish the true Muslim community with clear guidelines on how to handle their conflicts and also how to interact with others. The sect has a belief that any Muslim with a blameless personality can be the Imam including slaves who do not undergo the customary rituals.

The group also achieves its objective by excommunicating from the community anyone who has a gross violation of their presets and becomes a Kafir. Ibadis believe in reconciliation, and the best way to handle such unbelievers is to excommunicate them rather than doing what others do. Most of the other Kharijis regarded the Kafir as polytheist who deserve death and not repenting (Francesca, 2015).

Ibadan defined four states in which their true Muslim community could exist. It was a method of ensuring that they stay away from the illegal Islamic rulers. The four states helped to maintain their true doctrines hence easy to achieve their objectives. The State of manifestation served the purpose of imposing Ibadan dominion on all the Muslims and openly selecting a universal Imam for the Muslims. The state of defense could survive by fighting the attacks from the enemy and has a special Imam to combat the enemies. The third state was that of self-sacrifice. A small group would attack the enemy as martyrs and have the assurance of paradise. The fourth State of concealment came into existence when the faithful; had to live under the reign of their opponents and practice dissimulation.

The ibadis have always had an attitude of unity with all the other Muslims despite them being non-Ibadis. One of their Imans claimed that the movement does not regard the Muslim opponents as idolaters since they believe in the unity of God, the Book, and the Messenger. Thus, Ibadis fulfill the objective of living in peace with the other Muslims by inheriting from them, marrying them, and living among them. The faith of Islam is the main aspect that unites them. The Ibadis invite people and give them an opportunity to understand their views and wait for them to make their decisions. Thus, attacks from their opponents are the only threat to destabilizing the movement and engage in a fight (Jones & Ridout, 2012).

The Ibadis broke off from the larger Kharijite sect after Umayyad took power. The group opposed the rule of the third Caliph in Islam and rejected the murder of Uthman and the Kharijite belief that people with divergent views ought to die. They attempted an armed insurrection that originated in the Hijaz region. The problems made the Umayyads sign a peace deal with the Ibadis and allowed it to retain a community in shibam. The Ibadis opted to break off from the rest of the Kharijites to have own doctrines and beliefs that would assist in achieving their objectives. Thus, any opposition by the Umayyads faced stiff resistance that led to the signing of the peace deal. According to the previous research work, the Ibadis wanted to maintain the true Islamic community that has strict observance of the law. Thus, the best strategy to use was to break from the rest of the groups. They formed a movement that has different ideologies but follows the unity of God, the Book, and the Messenger (Hoffman, 2015).

The ibadis also achieve their objectives by living lives that reflect what they believe. The political-theological concepts that arise from Ibadism can shape behaviors and attitudes, and also express themselves in action. The behaviors and actions of the Ibadians are effective in helping the movement achieve its objectives of maintaining peace and advocating for a pure Islamic society. The Ibadians maintain a personality of politeness that impacts to the other groups living within their communities. It is a strategy of promoting cohesiveness and thereby distancing itself from Kharijism movement.

Historical, Social, Political, Cultural, and Racial implications of membership

Ibadism is a distinct sect of Islam that does not share the same beliefs to the Sunni and the Shii. The main members of the group came from the Kharijite sect thereby becoming the dominant sub-sect of the Kharijites in Oman. There exist Historical, Social, Political, Cultural, and racial implications to the membership to the movement.

Historical Implications of membership
The movement has an Islam origin and thus shares the same history with other Islam groups. The association of the members of the movement with the dangerous Kharijite sect raises issues of the sincerity of its aims. According to the group, the members believe that they are the true Muslims and people of straightness. The ideologies of seeking for a harmonious Islam community appear genuine, but the movement has certain accounts of involvement with crime. Thus, the major implication of sharing a history with the Kharijite is viewing the Ibadis as ordinary Kharijites under a different movement. In 2005, the Sultanate of Oman’s state security court sentenced to jail terms to 31 Islamists who plotted to overthrow Oman leadership and being part of an illegal organization. The men sentenced to the jail terms came from the interior of the country that is a stronghold of the Ibadis. Also, Ibadis is the dominant group in Oman and had a high possibility of taking part in the plot to overthrow the Leadership. The association of Ibadis with the Kharijites before they broke up has far reaching implications on the members due their history (Hoffman, 2015).

Social, political, and cultural Implications of membership
The membership of Ibadis movement has impacts on the social life. For several decades, the Ibadis and their beliefs remain a mystery to the outside world. It is the same to the non-Muslims and the other Muslims who do not understand the Ibadis. The Ibadis claim that they can justify their views on Sunnis and the Shi’ites since they took the time to read the works of the two groups. However, the two sects did not read Ibadi works and hence repeated myths and false information when addressing the topic. The isolated nature of Oman country granted the Ibadi movement a perfect environment to develop fully (Al-Azri, 2013). The groups separated from the Kharijite sect due to their rejection of many extreme beliefs. Thus, the spread of Ibadism in Oman became evident, and many people subscribed to its ideologies. The members live as tolerant Puritans and with little political influence since they prefer solving differences with dignity with reasoning rather than confrontational. They also tolerate the Christians and Jews who practice their ideologies and also share their communities (Francesca, 2015). The social life of the Ibadians is complex since the other people find it challenging to understand it. The other groups live in the same environments, intermarry, and conduct other common roles together, but identify the movement as unique to them.

The Ibadis claim that they are not a subset of the Kharijite movement. The implications of the Khariji thoughts and practices are sectarian and worm under the interests of conflict and division. Ibadis maintain a state of quietism that extends to the avoidance of violence and insist on tolerance and anti-sectarianism. The movement does not seek to convert the thoughts and doctrines of the occupants of their areas of dominance. However, it intends to have a cultural legacy of the early Ibadi practice of Kitman. The social orientation of the group maintains that they have to avoid open clashes with the authorities and also maintain relations with the rulers. Ibadians also do not isolate the members of the movement from the Muslim community (Wilkinson, 2015).

Racial implications of membership
The Ibadi sect is the dominant group in Oman and comprises the Arabs mostly. Nearly all the Omani’s are Muslim divided into the Sunnis and the Ibadis and a small percentage of the Shia groups. There are few who is Hindu and no Christians or Jews. Thus, the dominant race is Islam and people who join Ibadis require having the basic skills in Islam (Singhal, 2012). For a long time, Muslims have been under the profile of their groups organizing and executing several attacks across the world. Thus, Ibadians may have a clear agenda of their ideologies but the common misconception renders them not effective in achieving their mandate. The racial implications of being a member of the Ibadi are the common racial profiling about Islams across the world.

The beliefs and the social, political, and cultural organization of a movement are the main determinants of its ideologies. As such, the different political, military, and religious movements that exist have certain issues that define them. Of interest in the Research, paper are the Ibadi (Ibadism) who have much dominance in Oman. The Ibadis are a movement that shares common roots with the Kharijites but separated and adopted different ideologies and aspirations. The main aim of the Ibadis is distancing itself from Kharijism movement by living and practicing peace with other Muslim communities. The movement holds to its aspirations due to its strong belief in purity for the Islam community that motivates them to practice. The Ibadis achieve their objectives by living exemplary lives that display their ideologies and hence impact the other Islam communities. There are Historical, Social, Political, Cultural, and Racial implications to the membership of Ibadi. Their history of being part of the Kharijites has an effect on their way of life. The fact that Ibadis are Muslims renders them vulnerable to negative profiling similar to other Islamic groups.

Psychological factors

1. Discuss the psychological factors associated with pain and, at least, one psychosocial intervention used to treat pain.

Psychological factors related to pain disorder get viewed to play a significant role in the onset, seriousness, exacerbation or maintenance of the pain. Psychological assessment assists in understanding patient’s experience of pain together with any associated pain behavior such as grimacing, postural changes and expressions of face. It also assists in identifying coping strategies that get used by the patient and whether they result in a positive outcome such as distraction and staying busy or adverse outcome such as catastrophising and limitation of activity. The diagnosis of pain disorder with psychological factors gets made when the patient’s reaction is out of proportion to the physical condition and when deficits in psychosocial functioning occur.

The psychological factors associated with pain include (Turk & Gatchel, 2013).

Cognitions: Fear about paralysis and despondency can result in elevated levels of pain.
Emotion: High levels of pain get associated with fear, anxiety, general stress and depression. High levels of these aspects compel individuals to seek medical treatment for the pain.
Behavior: Pain gets associated with low self-esteem as well as marked avoidance
Attention: Giving a particular pain lot of attention can result in elevated intensity.
Interpretation: Pain gets assessed differently by different patients, for instance, an individual who suffered a heart attack may ignore a muscle twitch in the chest.
Expectations: The type of expectation an individual has towards a particular pain may affect the feedback received from pain receptors.
Context: The time when pain is occurring determines the pain felt by a person, for instance, a patient who has got injected with anesthesia in a theater surgery procedure may not feel the pain until later.
Coping approaches: Different approaches get used to minimize pain. They include biofeedback, visualization, positive affirmations, and distraction.
Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy for Pain Management
This psychosocial treatment process involves several phases. The first step in treatment is pain education, where a patient gets explained about pain, how the role of own response towards pain influences pain experience and coping strategies in pain control. The second step involves in one or more coping skills for pain management. The therapist provides an educational rationale, basic instruction as well as guided practice and feedback got each strategy taught. The third step involves home practice with the skills learned from the therapist. The last step of treatment involves assisting patients to establish a program for maintaining their skills practice after the completion of training and for overcoming setbacks and relapses in the coping strategies.

2. Pick two of the five theoretical models of coping with chronic illness and describe in detail. What adherence interventions would be effective in the two models you choose?

Self-Regulation Model
It is a theoretical model of goal-directed behavior that gets applied to understanding people’s ability to cope with the chronic disorder. In this model, the human behavior gets influenced by objectives through which individuals seek to develop particular desired conditions in their lives. Patients use the self-realization process to strive to achieve certain goals. This model gets based on the assumption that patients experience stress when they get hindrances towards achieving their goals and dealing with stress gets conceptualized as efforts at self-regulation based on that adversity. Suffering from a chronic illness is stressful to the extent that it gets viewed to prevent a patient’s goals and their ability to deal successfully with the disease get determined by their capacity to reassess the goals (Suls, Davidson & Kaplan, 2010).

Self-Determination Model
It is a theoretical model based on a broader theory of human motivation and behavior referred to as self-determination theory. The theory assumes that humans have three natural psychological needs namely, autonomy, competence, and relatedness to others and when these needs get met; persons usually experience improved self-motivation, development, and well-being. The theory recognizes that behavioral and affective factors of coping with chronic diseases such as diabetes and hypertension get facilitated by self-management. According to this model, people’s motivations for autonomy and competence are vital in successfully coping with chronic illnesses. Autonomy motivation occurs when individuals experience volition and choice in their illness-related behaviors, whereas competence occurs when patient’s feel that they can control important disease-related outcomes.

Database Creation

For a database administrator, describe the importance of database alerts

The alerts are very important to the database administrator because they help them get information regarding the events that may diversely impact the database in one way or another. They help the database administrator to respond to the issues as quickly as possible before any damage can take place (Basta & Zgola, 2011). Alerts come from all the internal errors, block corruption errors and deadlock errors that may be disastrous to the database. So the alerts help the database administrator to respond to them promptly before the effect of the error can escalate.

Describe the importance of reviewing the database logs to determine errors
At the heart of many devices that offer protection for the information technology, networks is an ability to log the events and actions so that remediation actions can be taken as appropriate (Horwath, 2012). The database logs errors to help the database administrator to review them and take any appropriate responses as per the error. It is essential for the database administrator to review the database error logs to determine the error so that he/she can take defensive measures before any real damage occurs (Murphy, 2015). Without the review of those database logs, the database administrator has little chances of knowing whether a live application has been compromised or is being attacked.

Compare the advantages of using a Database creation tool or using a script to create a database

Creating a database using a database creation tool or a script has many advantages, for instance, one can use the DBCA wizards to get direction in the selection of options offering an easy means of creation and tailoring of the database (Oracle Corporation, 2002). The database creator only supplies a minimum of input, and the tool makes decisions for them, eliminating the need to spend much time in deciding how to set parameters or how best to structure the database. The use of a tool also helps the database creator to be very specific concerning the file allocations and settings. The database creation using a script helps to decide the services required at the start.

Describe the basic database administrator responsibilities
The database administrator responsibilities revolve around three major activities: maintenance of the production database; planning, designing and making changes to the existing applications; and the management of a company’s data and the metadata (Connolly & Carolyn, 2004). The database administrator should also create policies and procedures regarding the database management, security, and the use of the database. A database administrator should also carry out general technical troubleshooting as he/she also provides consultation to the development teams (Blaha, 2001).

Describe Oracle tablespace (default tablespace, Bigfile, Smallville)

Oracle tablespace are the logical units in Oracle database that are used to store the entire database’s data. Each of those logical units/tablespaces consists of one or more data files that are physical structures that are specific to the operating system that Oracle database is running in. There are Bigfile tablespace and small file tablespace whereby the Bigfile tablespace comprises of a single datafile or a single temp file and the small file tablespace consists of several temp file of data files that can amount up to 1022 (Powell, 2007). A Bigfile tablespace comprises of a repository of if all the information in a single file whereas the small file tablespace has the same information contained in several files.

Describe the benefit of the Oracle client/server architecture

The client applications do not have to perform any data processing. Those applications only concentrate on the input requests from users or the server and then analyzing that data appropriately so that they can present it through display capabilities of the client node Luz, T. (1990).
The client/server architecture helps Oracle RDMS to exploit the multitasking as well as the shared memory facilities of the underlying operating system. Consequently, that offers the highest degree of data integrity, concurrency, and performance to the clients.
In this architecture, it is possible to optimize the terminals or client workstations for the presentation of data while the server can also be optimized to process and store data.
In the case of networked environments, the shared data can have placement on the servers instead of the workstations so that it will be easier and efficient to manage its concurrent access.