Psychological factors

1. Discuss the psychological factors associated with pain and, at least, one psychosocial intervention used to treat pain.

Psychological factors related to pain disorder get viewed to play a significant role in the onset, seriousness, exacerbation or maintenance of the pain. Psychological assessment assists in understanding patient’s experience of pain together with any associated pain behavior such as grimacing, postural changes and expressions of face. It also assists in identifying coping strategies that get used by the patient and whether they result in a positive outcome such as distraction and staying busy or adverse outcome such as catastrophising and limitation of activity. The diagnosis of pain disorder with psychological factors gets made when the patient’s reaction is out of proportion to the physical condition and when deficits in psychosocial functioning occur.

The psychological factors associated with pain include (Turk & Gatchel, 2013).

Cognitions: Fear about paralysis and despondency can result in elevated levels of pain.
Emotion: High levels of pain get associated with fear, anxiety, general stress and depression. High levels of these aspects compel individuals to seek medical treatment for the pain.
Behavior: Pain gets associated with low self-esteem as well as marked avoidance
Attention: Giving a particular pain lot of attention can result in elevated intensity.
Interpretation: Pain gets assessed differently by different patients, for instance, an individual who suffered a heart attack may ignore a muscle twitch in the chest.
Expectations: The type of expectation an individual has towards a particular pain may affect the feedback received from pain receptors.
Context: The time when pain is occurring determines the pain felt by a person, for instance, a patient who has got injected with anesthesia in a theater surgery procedure may not feel the pain until later.
Coping approaches: Different approaches get used to minimize pain. They include biofeedback, visualization, positive affirmations, and distraction.
Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy for Pain Management
This psychosocial treatment process involves several phases. The first step in treatment is pain education, where a patient gets explained about pain, how the role of own response towards pain influences pain experience and coping strategies in pain control. The second step involves in one or more coping skills for pain management. The therapist provides an educational rationale, basic instruction as well as guided practice and feedback got each strategy taught. The third step involves home practice with the skills learned from the therapist. The last step of treatment involves assisting patients to establish a program for maintaining their skills practice after the completion of training and for overcoming setbacks and relapses in the coping strategies.

2. Pick two of the five theoretical models of coping with chronic illness and describe in detail. What adherence interventions would be effective in the two models you choose?

Self-Regulation Model
It is a theoretical model of goal-directed behavior that gets applied to understanding people’s ability to cope with the chronic disorder. In this model, the human behavior gets influenced by objectives through which individuals seek to develop particular desired conditions in their lives. Patients use the self-realization process to strive to achieve certain goals. This model gets based on the assumption that patients experience stress when they get hindrances towards achieving their goals and dealing with stress gets conceptualized as efforts at self-regulation based on that adversity. Suffering from a chronic illness is stressful to the extent that it gets viewed to prevent a patient’s goals and their ability to deal successfully with the disease get determined by their capacity to reassess the goals (Suls, Davidson & Kaplan, 2010).

Self-Determination Model
It is a theoretical model based on a broader theory of human motivation and behavior referred to as self-determination theory. The theory assumes that humans have three natural psychological needs namely, autonomy, competence, and relatedness to others and when these needs get met; persons usually experience improved self-motivation, development, and well-being. The theory recognizes that behavioral and affective factors of coping with chronic diseases such as diabetes and hypertension get facilitated by self-management. According to this model, people’s motivations for autonomy and competence are vital in successfully coping with chronic illnesses. Autonomy motivation occurs when individuals experience volition and choice in their illness-related behaviors, whereas competence occurs when patient’s feel that they can control important disease-related outcomes.

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Continuity planning project

Internal Memorandum
To: All Department Heads
From: Operational Manager
Re: Preparation for the first meeting of the company continuity planning team.

The company operations should be protected and prevented from any action that may render the failures to the meeting of the daily activities. It requires the management to speed up the process of implementing the company continuity plan that will provide the guidance to the securing of the company entities. The continuity plan is essential to our company since it is a key element that provides support to good governance as a demand from most regulators and stakeholders within the company. The plan extends to meeting and ensuring compliance with the international standards from which a company should operate within. Company continuity guarantees some protection to the company data and some relative identities of the company. Therefore, the company requires a proper business continuity plan to avoid the breaching of the data protection legislation defined within the company (Burtles, 2007).

We take to inform that the company is scheduled to undertake an exercise of appointing representatives from each department to the business continuity planning team. The appointment of the representatives will take into consideration the following effects; the departments should present an individual of following desirables (Fulmer, 2008);

The eligible candidates should have a good understanding of the company core process and the overall company management
The candidate should possess some good leadership’s skills as well as deployment of the teamwork; we also request to you consider the quality of both verbal and written communication of the candidates
The candidate must prove the experience and possession of in Information Technology and information security skills
The presented individual must express some strong project management capabilities and be a well-respected person within the company
The heads of department should identify some individuals within their departments and forward the names for discussion during the meeting. May we have a thought on some other relevant and desirable qualities for our team because the task ahead of the team is critical and require very sensitive and promising personnel for the duties exercised in the company continuity plan.

During the meeting, the attendants will examine, propose and identify the roles to be played by the continuity planning team. However, the roles should capture and address the test facilitators prior implementing the plan, the suggested participants, the business stakeholders, management, recorders and other defined roles. Before the meeting, it is the urge of the management through the operational department to have the departments’ heads brainstorm on other roles apart from the following roles (Goh, 2006);

The test facilitators will be expected to be responsible for ensuring the sessions is in order, and the, actions are taken smoothly, introduce some creativity of roadblocks and worst case scenarios while undertaking the test. They should make sure that all issues to be addressed are recorded as they keep the schedule of the session and ensure that the follow-up activities and time frames are well discussed and prepared.
The recovery team goes by representing the persons that undertake some roles that are relevant to the selected scenario. They will be expected to have the following in condition, reviewing of the business continuity plan before the undertaking of the test and in normal happen of an event, disaster. Brainstorm and discuss to identify the appropriate best actions to be undertaken during the undertaking of the test or the recovery process within the company.
Company employees’ Skills Inventory

May this come to the attention that the Human Resource department will have to conduct some skill inventory so as to have the identification of the most possible reliable and skilled personnel whom we can have them involved in the business continuity planning team. It is important to note that the exercise shall come before the hold of the meeting in preparation to the identifying of the company continuity planning team. The exercise goes by to have the identification of the potential candidates with the desirable skills, have the company determine what kind of training should be conducted to impact the missing skills within the employees and many other relevant benefits of conducting skills inventory within the company (Anonymous, 2002).

The first meeting agenda
The department heads should be informed that the agenda for the first meeting is under development and shall receive the agenda documents some two weeks before the hold of the meeting. It is our prayer and request that we take to consider the information in the agenda paper and hold to respect the information contained.

The company wishes to thank for the good work you are doing for the best of results it is holding. It is the prayer that we keep up with the same tone and remain focused to the meeting of the company goals. Thank you for your time as you plan to respond to the outlined activities in the documents.

First meeting of the company continuity planning team agenda

AGENDA
First Meeting of the Company continuity planning team
9.00 a.m. – 5.00 p.m.

The meeting was called by Company Operational Manager
Attendees: All Department heads
Please bring:
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_________________________________________________________________________

9.00 a.m. – 10.00 a.m. Introduction

Breakfast and socializing Board room

___________________________________________________________________________

10.00 a.m. – Noon Presentation of the department representative’s names for vetting Board room

____________________________________________________________________________

Noon – 1.00 p.m. Lunch Board room

____________________________________________________________________________

1.00 p. m. – 4.00 p.m. Develop the business continuity planning team roles and responsibilities Board room

__________________________________________________________________________

4.00 p.m. – 5.00 p.m. Tea break and adjourning the meeting Board room

___________________________________________________________________________

Please let us keep time and be organized during the meeting.
Thank you all.
Continuity planning team budget draft
The budget will take duration of 12 months in the capture of the continuity planning team meetings, the required materials, training expenses, testing cost and the set-aside figure for the case of the disaster.

Budget Draft

Item cost ($000)

Team meeting 1200

Remunerations 1500

Team materials 3500

Trainings 2000

Plan testing cost 1500

Disaster cost 10000

Miscellaneous 1000

The budget estimation goes by ensuring that anticipated event is allocated some higher amount as it will entail a lot. At the same time, the continuity planning team must be given some incentives to give them the heart and an assurance that the company appreciates their efforts. The training is critical as the team must get the high skills of handling the scenarios and it goes by providing them the most sophisticated facilities to fasten and easy their work of securing the company data. The budget is under adjustments depending on the relevant factors and suggestions from the management.